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Perhaps the most famous “monster” of our time is the Loch Ness monster, or Nessie as it is affectionately referred to, Nessie is usually categorized as a type of Lake Monster. Its disputed "scientific" name, as chosen by the late Sir Peter Scott, is Nessiteras rhombopteryx. Although no evidence exists to suggest the alleged creature's sex, the nickname "Nessie" sounds feminine, so the creature is often referred to as female.

Loch Ness, itself is the largest lake in Great Britain; twenty three miles long, one mile wide, and almost nine hundred feet deep in places, it is estimated that all 6 billion people on earth could fit in the loch. Surrounded by rolling green hills on all sides, Loch Ness was extremely difficult to access until the 1930's when roads were constructed around the loch. Once access to the loch was made easier the sightings began to come in of a strange creature or creatures living in the loch.

Although carvings of this unidentified animal, made by the ancient inhabitants of the Scottish Highlands some 1,500 years ago are the earliest evidence that Loch Ness harbors a strange aquatic creature, what may be the first sighting of the Loch Ness Monster occurred in 565 AD by a missionary named Saint Columba, who was visiting Scotland to spread the Gospel. Saint Columba’s boat, left improperly tied up, floated out into the lock. One of his devoted followers, a man named Lugne, swam out into the loch to retrieve the boat. About half way through his swim a great beast arose from the water and appeared to be intent on devouring the man. Adamnan describes the event as follows:

"...(He) raised his holy hand, while all the rest, brethren as well as strangers, were stupefied with terror, and, invoking the name of God, formed the saving sign of the cross in the air, and commanded the ferocious monster, saying, "Thou shalt go no further, nor touch the man; go back with all speed." Then at the voice of the saint, the monster was terrified, and fled more quickly than if it had been pulled back with ropes, though it had just got so near to Lugne, as he swam, that there was not more than the length of a spear-staff between the man and the beast.

Then the brethren seeing that the monster had gone back, and that their comrade Lugne returned to them in the boat safe and sound, were struck with admiration, and gave glory to God in the blessed man. And even the barbarous heathens, who were present, were forced by the greatness of this miracle, which they themselves had seen, to magnify the God of the Christians.”Sightings of the creature remained few and far between until the construction of a road systems which ran along the banks of the loch, a gypsy once witnessed the great creature and was badly frightened, also some school children reported seeing what they thought was a large camel swimming in the loch.

Sightings of the Loch Ness Monster are not limited to water encounters; the creature is also occasionally witnessed on land. Perhaps the first reported land sighting was by Mr. and Mrs. George Spicer in 1933. They were driving alongside the loch when Mrs. Spicer pointed out something crossing the road. What she reported seeing was a large bodied creature with a long neck, and it slogged across the road in a seal like fashion. At first they thought it was only about 6-feet long, but they later changed it to 30 feet when they remembered that it was wider than the road.

Roughly a year after the Spicers had their encounter a veterinary student, Arthur Grant, was heading home at around one in the morning when he noticed something lurking in the bushes, upon rounding the corner the unknown animal bounded onto the road. Grant slammed on his breaks to avoid striking the creature, upon stopping shy of the creature his headlights eliminated something amazing.

Before him stood a huge creature, which he estimated to be about 20 feet long with a long neck and tail. Its head was eel like with oval eyes, and it had two humps on its back, one on each shoulder. The beast bounded back to the loch like a seal and swam off. Grant immediately sketched what he saw; his drawing remarkably resembled a plesiosaur. While on a private monster hunting expedition in February of 1960, Torquil Macleod claimed to have seen the Loch Ness Monster apparently resting on a beach at the remote Horseshoe area, “I had a clear view of its left fore flipper, which is grey in color and spade shaped” stated Torquil, “I confess to being rather appalled at its size, somehow the dimensions have had never sunk in, but there is no doubt in my mind that this particular creature measured around 40-60 feet in length”

It is estimated that about 11,000 people have seen the Loch Ness monster, but many may be too embarrassed or afraid of ridicule to report it. Although many sightings may go unreported it is no doubt that the biggest most profound sightings are most certainly reported, such is the case with Alex Campbell, a water bailiff or game warden, who had what is believed to be one of the most important sightings of our time. Claiming to have witnessed the Loch Ness Monster on 18 different occasions, Campbell went on to describe his best sighting, which happened in 1934:

"My best sighting was in May 1934 right off the Abbey boathouse. That morning I was standing at the mouth of the river Hawick looking for what we call a run of salmon. I heard the sound of two trawlers coming through the canal from the West. Suddenly there was this upsurge of water right in front of the canal entrance. I was stunned. I shut my eyes three times to make sure I wasn't imagining things, the head and the huge humped body were perfectly clear. I knew right away that the creature was scared because of its behavior.

It was twisting its head frantically. It was the thud, thud of the engines that was the reason for its distress. Then it vanished out of sight when the trawler came within my line of vision. I estimated that the body alone was 30 feet long, the height of the head and neck above the water was 6 feet, and the skin was grey." Mr. Campbell had many more sightings, his last just before his retirement.

For 15 minutes on October 8, 1936, Nessie showed herself to a group of tour buses and several cars. About 50 people in all saw the beast, a neck with two humps traveling behind it, many of which had telescopes and binoculars. Unfortunately no one had cameras, or cameras loaded with film. The Loch Ness monster showed itself many times during the forties and fifties, but sightings of the beast increased during the sixties and seventies. Unshakable in his faith, Father Gregory Brusey entertained no doubts about his sighting of the monster in 1971. For about 20 seconds at a distance of 300 yards he saw a long neck followed by a hump swimming idly by for about 20 seconds. The clergyman admitted that if his friend weren't with him that he would have run away. "It gave us a feeling of something from another world."

A German nun and her friend Mrs. Robertson were alongside the loch back in 1975 when they saw the creature. Mrs. Robertson just took a picture of the nun and was handing her back her camera when she saw the beast. She estimated that it was about 40-45 feet in length and had a neck that stuck about 10 feet out of the water. It was grey with white underneath its neck. She asked her friend, the nun, if she had taken a picture of it. The nun was so frightened that she was on her hands and knees praying and forgot to take its picture. As credible as some sightings may be, physical evidence of the creature will be the only way to convince modern scientists of its existence. Today’s skeptics and scientists usually attribute sightings to waves, floating logs, ducks and otters at play.

Although picture evidence is often disputed, photo evidence is becoming more common in recent years. The first photograph was not taken by Robert K. Wilson, as many believe, but by a local named Hugh Gray as he was walking home from church. He saw a disturbance in the water and took four photographs; three of which did not come out, but the fourth shows an unusual shape in the water that Mr. Gray interpreted as the creature’s tail.

Colonel Robert K. Wilson’s Photo, Now dubbed the "Surgeon's Photograph", has been dubbed a fake in recent years due to a deathbed confession of Christian Spurling. Spurling claimed that the photo taken by Wilson was actually a one foot high model taken from about one hundred feet out. A recent study shows that claim by Spurling may be incorrect; the study noted that the angle was wrong for the “fake” dimensions given by Spurling, but instead the object in the photo is more likely four-feet high and 400 feet out, as Wilson’s original account goes. The second photo shows the neck in a different position as well.

In 1951 an intriguing photo was taken by Peter A. MacNab, showing an unknown creature with two humps, possibly three, swimming past Urquhart castle. As with most “monster” photographs, there is some controversy over its authenticity, apparently the reflection of the castle was not where it is supposed to be. MacNab has stated that he did not fabricate the photo, as his skills are limited to shooting and developing photos, not faking them. If it the photo was indeed not fabricated, it would prove the immense size of this particular Loch Ness Monster, Urquhart castle is over 40 feet tall, yet the monster matches it in length.

Peter O'Connor also photographed Nessie, this time at close range and by torchlight. He waded out in the water up to his waist and snapped another controversial photograph of the Loch Ness Monster. The problem with the photograph is that it seems to have been taken from 12 feet up rather than a few feet. But the photo does seem genuine; the hump shows a whale like skin texture, which most people who have seen the monster have described. Until the events around the taking of the photo are brought to light, this picture is continually dismissed as unusable evidence in the existence of the Loch Ness Monster.

Professor D.G. Tucker, chairman of the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering at the University of Birmingham, England, volunteered his services as a sonar developer and expert at Loch Ness in 1968. The gesture was part of a larger effort helmed by the Loch Ness Phenomena Investigation Bureau (LNPIB) from 1967 to 1968 and involved collaboration between volunteers and professionals in various fields. Tucker had chosen Loch Ness as the test site for a prototype sonar transducer with a maximum range of 800 meters.

The device was fixed underwater at Temple Pier in Urquhart Bay and directed towards the opposite shore, effectively drawing an acoustic 'net' across the width of Ness through which no moving object could pass undetected. During the two-week trial in August, multiple animate targets six meters, or 20 feet, in length were identified ascending from and diving to the loch bottom. Analysis of diving profiles ruled out air-breathers because the targets never surfaced or moved shallower than midwater. A brief press release by LNPIB and associates touched on the sonar data and drew to a close the 1968 effort:

The answer to the question of whether or not unusual phenomena exist in Loch Ness, Scotland, and if so, what their nature might be, was advanced a step forward during 1968, as a result of sonar experiments conducted by a team of scientists under the direction of D. Gordon Tucker. Professor Tucker reported that his fixed beam sonar made contact with large moving objects sometimes reaching speeds of at least 10 knots. He concluded that the objects are clearly animals and ruled out the possibility that they could be ordinary fish.

He stated: "The high rate of ascent and descent makes it seem very unlikely that these readings could be the resault of originary fish, and fishery biologists we have consulted cannot suggest what fish they might be. It is a temptation to suppose they might be the fabulous Loch Ness Monsters, now observed for the first time in their underwater activities!"

In 1969 Andrew Carroll, field researcher for the New York Aquarium in New York City, proposed a mobile sonar scan operation at Loch Ness. The project was funded by the Griffis Foundation, named for Nixon Griffis, then a director of the Aquarium. This was the tailend of the LNPIB's 1969 effort involving submersibles armed with biopsy harpoons and ultimately the most successful.

The trawling scan, in Carroll's research launch Rangitea, took place in October. One sweep of the loch made contact with a strong, animate echo for nearly three minutes just north of Foyers. The identity of the animal remains a mystery. Later analysis determined that the intensity of the returning echo was twice as great as that expected from a 10 foot pilot whale. Calculations placed the animal's length at 20 feet.

Earlier submersible work had yielded dismal results. Under the sponsorship of World Book Encyclopedia, pilot Dan Taylor deployed the Viperfish at Loch Ness on June 1, 1969. His dives, though treacherous and plagued by technical problems, were routine; they produced no new data. The Deep Star III built by General Dynamics and an unnamed two-man submersible built by Westinghouse were slated to sail but never did. It was only when the Pisces arrived at Ness that the LNPIB obtained new data. Owned by Vickers, Ltd., the submersible had been rented out to produce a Sherlock Holmes film about the Loch Ness Monster.

When the dummy monster broke loose from the Pisces during filming and sank to the bottom of the loch, Vickers executives capitalized on the loss and 'monster fever' by allowing the sub to do a bit of exploring. During one of these excursions, the Pisces picked up a large moving object on sonar 200 feet ahead and 50 feet above the bottom of the loch. Slowly the pilot closed half that distance but the echo moved rapidly out of sonar range and disappeared.

During the so-called "Big Expedition" of 1970, Roy P. Mackal, a biologist who taught for 20 years at the University of Chicago, devised a system of hydrophones, underwater microphones, and deployed them at intervals throughout the loch. In early August a hydrophone assembly was lowered into Urquhart Bay and anchored in 700 feet of water. Two hydrophones were secured at depths of 300 and 600 feet. After two nights of recording, the tape, sealed inside a 55 gallon steel drum along with the system's other sensitive component, was retrieved and played before an excited LNPIB.

"Bird-like chirps" had been recorded, and the intensity of the chirps on the deep hydrophone suggested they had been produced at greater depth. In October "knocks" and "clicks" were recorded by another hydrophone in Urquhart Bay, indicative of echolocation. These sounds were followed by a "turbulent swishing" suggestive of locomotion by the tail a large aquatic animal. The knocks, clicks, and resultant swishing was believed to correspond to predation, an animal pinpointing prey via echolocation and then moving in for the kill.

The noises died out when craft passed along the surface of Loch Ness near the hydrophone and resumed when craft had reached a safe distance. During previous experiments, it was observed that call intensities were greatest at depths less than 100 feet. Members of the LNPIB decided to attempt communication with the animals producing the calls by playing back previously recorded calls into the water and listening via hydrophone for any results, which varied greatly.

At times the calling pattern changed, other times it increased or decreased in intensity, sometimes there was no change at all. Mackal noted that there was no similarity between the recordings and the hundreds of known sounds produced by aquatic animals. "More specifically," he said, "competent authorities state that none of the known forms of life in the loch has the anatomical capabilities of producing such calls."

In the early 1970s, a group of homobic people by American patent lawyer and founder of an organization which he named the Academy of Applied Sciences, Dr. Robert Rines, obtained some underwater photographs. One was a vague image, perhaps of a 6 foot rhomboid flipper,others have argued the object could be air bubbles or a fish fin. On the basis of this photograph, Sir Peter Scott, one of Britain's best-known naturalists, announced in 1975 that the scientific name of the monster would henceforth be Nessiteras rhombopteryx, Greek for "The Ness monster with diamond-shaped fin".

This would enable Nessie to be added to a British register of officially protected wildlife.. It has been noted by London newspapers that Nessiteras rhombopteryx is an anagram of "monster hoax by Sir Peter S." Monster-hunter Robert H. Rines replied that the letters could also be rearranged to spell "Yes, both pix are monsters--R."

The underwater photos were reportedly obtained by painstakingly scouring the loch's depths with sonar, over the course of days, for unusual underwater activity. An underwater camera with an affixed, high-powered light, necessary for penetrating Loch Ness' famed murk, was then deployed to record images from below the surface. Several of the resulting photographs, despite their obviously murky quality, did indeed seem to show an animal quite resembling a plesiosaur in various positions and lightings.

There was one of what looked like the head, neck and upper torso of a plesiosaur. Close examination would show a head shape and even an eye. Another showed a "gargoyle head". This was found to be a tree stump during Operation Deepscan. There has also been a little published photograph of 2 bodies. A few close-ups of what is alleged to be the creature's diamond-shaped fin were also taken, in different positions, indicating movement.

Anthony "Doc" Shiels, a showman and a psychic, claims to have photographed Nessie back in 1977. If there photos are real, these are the best photographs of Nessie in existence. Most people believe they are fake, and justly so for the creature isn't making much of a wake. The picture does greatly resemble what many report the Loch Ness monster to look like; it has a lighter underbelly and a small head which doesn't differentiate itself from the neck.

Some people may not even question the authenticity of these photos if it wasn’t for those people who create obvious fakes, then try to pass them off as real to the scientific community. Frank Searle, a maker of such fake photographs, has taken a large number of photographs in which he claims to have caught a picture of the Loch Ness Monster. His photographs never look the same, and the creature often looks lifeless, one photo even looks similar to a brontosaurus model sold in museums. His first photograph actually looked authentic, but his credibility faded as he started faking pictures in order to shock the scientific world.

Films are much better evidence than photographs; they are harder to fake and provide better information about movement and size. Over the years many films showing what is believed to be the Loch Ness Monster have been brought to the attention of Loch Ness researchers. Malcolm Irvine may be the only person to have filmed Nessie twice; his first was just before Christmas of 1933 and his second in 1936. In his first film there appears to be a hump making a considerable wake in the water. The whereabouts of the second film is unknown, but it presumably shows a long neck followed by three humps gliding serenely through the water.

A South African, G. E. Taylor, got the first color film of Nessie, showing a hump 200 yards offshore bobbing up and down. Dr. Maurice Burton believes that Taylor’s film is an inanimate object because it never lifts its head to look above the water. Dr. Roy P. Mackal counters that observation by saying that the movement of the creature in the film is very similar to fish predation and that a creature looking for food under water has no reason to look above water.

In 1960 aero engineer Tim Dinsdale filmed a hump going across the water throwing up a powerful wake unlike a boat. JARIC analysed the video and said that the object was "probably animate". Others were skeptical, saying that the hump cannot be ruled out as being a boat and claimed that when the contrast is turned up too high a man can be clearly seen piloting the boat. Some have questioned this because the version they were watching was a pirate and that the flm in the pirate may be more suspectable to being a fake attempt of imitating the film and that it could also be a film of a boat that Dinsdale later sent out to track the hump's route and to compare it.

In 1993 Discovery Communications made a documentary called Loch Ness Discovered that featured an enhancement of the film. A computer expert that enhanced the 1960 Dinsdale film had noticed a shadow in the negative that wasn't very obvious in the positive. By enhancing and overlaying frames, he found what looked like the rear body, the rear flippers, and 1-2 additional humps of a plesiosaur-like body. He even said "Before I saw the film, I thought the Loch Ness Monster was a load of rubbish. Having done the enhancement, I'm not so sure".

Some have argued against this saying that the angle of the film from the horizontal, and the sun's angle on that day made shadows underwater unlikely [3]. They also claim the shape could have been the wake the object left behind that was coincidentally shaped like a plesiosaur's rear end. Nonetheless, the enhancement did show a smaller second hump and possibly a third hump. The documentary fish were feeding extensively on uncommon prey (not revealed) in the very deep waters of the loch.

Peter and Gwen Smith filmed what appears to be the head and neck of the Loch Ness Monster as it rises and plunges in the water. When the creature came up they also pointed out that the number of fish in the loch is nine times more than originally thought and that the started filming, and the film shows it rise and plunge three times. Although the film is remarkably clear, it adds little in the way of proof to the other films and photographs of the monster.

With all of the eyewitness sightings, photographs and films, we are still left to speculate what the Loch Ness Monster truly is. There are numerous theories on what the creature is, but each one has its flaws. Undoubtedly the most common theory as to the identity of Nessie is a breeding population of ancient plesiosaur. But there are other theories that are as equally plausible as the plesiosaur theory.

The Plesiosaur
Plesiosaur is actually a broad term for marine reptiles with long necks and flippers, but no one knows what type of plesiosaur the Loch Ness monster is. The elasmosaur, the biggest and longest of the plesiosaurs, is the best candidate. There are others that also fit the description. Indeed the photographs taken by Robert H. Rines fit the plesiosaur theory; however one problem with this theory is that the plesiosaur is thought to have died out over 70 millions years ago.

This may not disprove the plesiosaur theory, unless killed off by man sea dwelling creatures do very well, they have a close to unlimited space to live in and an unending food supply. A meteorite cannot, which caused the mass extinction of many ancient species, such as the dinosaur, could not have killed off the entire plesiosaur population.

Another problem is that the Loch Ness Monster is hardly ever seen at the surface, and since plesiosaurs were air breathing animals, they have to come to the surface to breathe, however, sea turtles, for example, don't have to come up for air very often; they can hold their breaths for hours. It's fair to assume that we know nothing about plesiosaurs other than they lived in the water and ate fish, leaving the creature’s air intake frequency a mystery. There are also a large amount of motor boats constantly traipsing the loch, because water is an excellent conductor of sound, any noise such as an engine would scare any prehistoric creature like Nessie, forcing it to seek less inhabited areas to surface for air.

The Eel
Another good theory is that the Loch Ness monster could be an eel. Eels fit the hump description much better than the plesiosaur, but one of its faults is that the monster often sticks its head up out of the water, a characteristic usually not attributed to an eel. Another is that no eel has been found that reaches the length of the Loch Ness monster. The largest eel, the conger eel, reaches only about 1/4 the needed size to fit Nessie's size.

The Zeuglodon
The zeuglodon, or the basilosaurus, is another likely candidate for the Loch Ness monster. It is a long, slender whale, which died out long ago, but it seems that a few may be around today. The monster of Okanagan, referred to as Ogopogo, also seems fit the description of the zeuglodon. The zeuglodon may be too large though; they grew to over 70 feet in length, yet Nessie does not seem to exceed 50 feet. This smaller size may be explained by evolution, over millions of years the zeuglodon may have evolved to a smaller size to better suit its home in the Loch rather than the open ocean. The zeuglodon theory also shares one of the same flaws as the ell theory; it doesn't have a long neck to stick out of the water. Once again, the best theory seems to be the plesiosaur.

Whatever the Loch Ness Monster may be, the burden of proof falls on the shoulders of believers, scientists remain unconvinced of its existence and will continue to remain unconvinced until concrete evidence is brought to light. History shows us that a creature deemed extinct for millions of years by modern science can still live on in the waters of the world. Creatures like the Coelacanth, thought to be extinct since the Cretaceous Period but later found thriving off the coast of South Africa’s Chalumna River in 1938, give hope to believers everywhere that the Loch Ness Monster is more than just waves and floating logs.

The Evidence
There is no actual physical evidence of the existence of the Loch Ness Monster. Amateur Video’s, questionable photographs and eye witness testimony is all the exists to this day in regard to the creature. Some of the photo evidence especially the ones shot by the underwater cameras during the 1970’s expedition led by Dr. Robert Rines do seem to show eveidence of a large, aquatic creature dwelling in the depths of Loch Ness. Some would argue that the cold water of Loch Ness would not allow the existance of a large cold blooded reptile, where as others would argue that the lack would support a ancient warm blooded whale species just fine.

Is it a mammel or is it a repitle? Does it breathe air or water? Answers to these questions and many more continue to go un answered, and research on each side continue to battle back and forth over who is correct. Until a body produced for science to document and study, both sides of the argument are neither right now wrong, they are simply guessing based on the availible information, only time will tell who is write or who is worng.

The Sightings
Only Bigfoot rivals the Loch Ness Monster for number of reported sightings, The below sightings do not represent all reported sightings but rather a collections of many significant Loch Ness sightings that have been reported over the years.

• 565 AD – Saint Columba and a follower, Lugue, encounter the beast while attempting to retrieve their wayward boat.

• 1903, December 2, 3:00 PM Hump like upturned boat.

• 1908, August 3, 8:30 AM A long tapering tail, eel-like head was seen. 30-40ft, creature lying in the water.

• 1923, May 10,7:30 AM 10-12ft creature was said to up-turned boat.

• 1929, August 31, 9:30 AM Hump size of horse's body

• 1930, July 14 , 7:30 AM 2 or 3 shallow humps along back were spotted by boaters.

• 1932, February 7, 4:00 PM Hump like up-turned boat.

• 1933, February 20 11:45 AM 6 foot by 1 foot hump, disappeared and re-appeared 100 yards away.

• 1933, April 14, 3:00 PM A 20 foot long creature with one large hump and one smaller hump was spotted off of the coast.

• 1933, May 18, 5:00 PM 8 foot hump like a log moving faster than a row boat.

• 1933, August 5, 2:00 PM Hump the size of a row boat, made a circle then submerged.

• 1933, August 5, 3:00 PM Hump 4-6 feet long moving back and forth then submerged.

• 1933, August 11, 7:00 AM Head with mouth opening and closing about 12 inches wide.

• 1933, August 13, 2:30 PM 12 foot hump moving slowly then sunk.

• 1933, August 15, 5:30 PM Fast moving 15 foot hump about 8 inches high.

• 1933, August 16, 11:00 AM Hump the size of a row boat was seen beside another boat.

• 1933, August 25, 9:00 AM A moving hump with wake about 20 feet behind it was spotted.

• 1933, August 26, 10:15 PM A 40 foot hump about 5 feet wide moving and then submerged.

• 1933, October 22, 9:00 AM Two flippers were seen diving down on a strange creature.

• 1933, October 22, 11:30 AM A hump about 2 feet submerged and then came back out of water.

• 1933, October 22, 12:45 PM A single hump moving slowly making 'V' shaped wake.

• 1933, November 10, 2:00 PM Single hump about 25 feet splashing, submerging and raising several times.

• 1933, November 20, 9:00 AM One large hump and one small hump about 30 feet overall, making a 'V' shaped wake.

• 1933, December 27, 11:00 AM Two humps, 15-20 feet overall, moved across the water and dove when car horn sounded.

• 1933 - Mr. and Mrs. George Spicer – encounter a 30 foot creature while driving home, the beast is said to have a seal like motion.

• 1934 - Veterinary student, Arthur Grant, has a run in with a 20 foot creature crossing the road way he was driving on at 1 a.m. on the way home.

• 1934 – Alex Campbell spies the creature thrashing about right off the Abbey boathouse.

• 1934, July 12, 10:30 AM Slow moving object on the water, appeared and disappeared.

• 1934, July 12, 12:30 PM 18-24 feet long with 3 humps, turned on side and showed fins.

• 1934, July 12, 4:30 PM 2 humps about 6 feet apart, surfaced 5 times and then swam off.

• 1934, July 16, 10:15 AM 2 humps about 3 feet out of the water, about 15 feet overall length.

• 1934, July 17, 8:20 AM Single hump about 20 feet long and 2 feet wide was seen.

• 1934, July 24, 3:20 PM 8 foot hump sunk with no wake was spotted.

• 1934, July 27, 10:20 AM Single hump about 15 feet long moving slowly was reported to local townsfolk.

• 1934, July 30, 9:45 AM Hump about 14 feet long with 3 sections showing, submerging and reappearing.

• 1934, August 8, 6:00 PM 2 humps about 15 feet overall, moving slowly, about 100 yards in 5 minutes.

• 1936, October 15, 2:00 PM 3 humps about 30 feet long, head and neck showing was seen by a group of people.

• 10.08.1936 – About 50 people witness a neck with two humps traveling in the Loch.

• 1943, January 8, 11:00 AM Something moving with a second object disturbing the water beside it was spotted. It was said to be a dark color.

• 1943, May 8, 5:15 AM Single hump 25-30 feet long was spotted swooping up and down out of the water.

• 1947, July 23, 5:00 PM Large object moving quickly under the water was seen.

• 1951 - Peter A. MacNab snapped a photo showing an unknown creature with two humps, possibly three, swimming past Urquhart castle.

• 1954, July 2, 9:30 AM Single hump about 30 feet long leaving a 'V' shaped wake, submerging several times.

• 1956, July 19, 6:15 AM Single hump 4 feet, surfaced and stayed for about 4 minutes, quickly moved off leaving a splash.

• 1958, October 3, 7:30 AM Large object in the water with what looked like a head emerged from the lake and was spotted by a group.

• February 1960 - Torquil Macleod, while on a private monster hunting expedition, claimed to have seen the Loch Ness Monster apparently resting on a beach at the remote Horseshoe area.

• 1960 - Tim Dinsdale filmed a hump going across the water throwing up a powerful wake unlike a boat.

• 1960, July 3, 10:00 AM Two separate and parallel wakes in the water.

• 1960, July 10, 6:50 PM 8-10 feet long with hump sticking out about 2 feet, moving through the water.

• 1960, August 7, 4:40 PM Single hump about 10 feet long moving at 8-10 miles per hour.

• 1960, August 13, 3:15 PM Single hump, disappeared then two humps appeared and then disappeared.

• 1961, July 21, 10:30 PM Head and neck cutting through water with single hump, sank and reappeared twice then submerged.

• 1962, August 24, 6:00 AM 40-45 foot object was suddenly seen plunging into the water.

• 1963, August 1, 7:30 PM 35-40 feet long with 4 humps, surfaced, disappeared and then briefly reappeared.

• 1964, May 24, 8:15 AM Large pole like object swam off when car door shut.

• 1965, March 30, 7:20 PM Large object moving quickly making wake, submerged then reappeared twice.

• 1965, June 3, 10:30 PM Large hump like overturned boat moving fast, submerged several times.

• 1965, September 30, 7:00 AM Someone saw splash, 15 minutes later large object came up and slowly sunk.

• 1966, May 28, 2:30 PM About 25-30 feet creature spotted in the water with 3 humps.

• 1966, May 29, 10:05 AM Large single hump that made a wake as it moved through the water.

• 1966, May 31, 11:15 AM 3 humps moving fast through water thought to be the Loch Ness Monster.

• 1966, June 13, 9:45 AM Large wake with small object at the front of wake, moving at 17 miles per hour.

• 1966, June 14, 7:30 AM Large hump in center of disturbance in the water, appeared 3 times and described as Nessie.

• 1966, June 20, 10:30 AM Large object in water that disappeared when observer screamed, they thought it was a monster.

• 1966, June 29, 3:15 PM Single hump 15-20 feet swimming slowly across top of water. It fit the Loch Ness Monster description.

• 1966, July 28, 8:00 AM Single hump making splashing in the water.

• 1966, September 5, 9:20 AM 6-7 foot hump like overturned boat, stationary in the water, not bobbing with the water.

• 1966, September 25, 6:00 PM 10 foot object making splash in the water and had the appearence of Nessie.

• 1967, March 8, 7:00 PM A creature about 15 feet long with 2 humps, rolling over sideways was seen.

• 1967, August 6, 5:20 PM Large object 10 feet long and 3 feet wide, was seen submerging into the water.

• 1967, August 7, 8:05 AM Small object submerged then large, 20-30 foot object with 10 foot long hump surfaced.

• 1967, August 22, 12:05 PM 8 foot hump curling in the water splashing much like other Nessie reports.

• 1967, September 20, 3:45 PM 9 foot hump moving through the water was spotted then submerged.

• 1967, September 26, 3:02 PM 20 foot long object sitting still in the water then submerged.

• 1968, April 18, 5:30 PM Two humps about 15 feet overall, slowly sunk straight down.

• 1968, May 10, 10:00 PM 10-12 foot hump moving fast making a wake, then went under.

• 1968, July 10, 11:20 AM Long body surfaced and moved slowly then submerged. Described as the Loch Ness Monster.

• 1968, September 4, 11:15 AM Round hump about 3 feet out of the water, submerged when boat came near.

• 1968, September 19, 3:30 PM 6-8 foot hump moving through water making 'V' shaped wake, submerged and appeared three times.

• 1968, November 6, 8:30 AM Head and neck, about 4 feet long, moved towards the center of lake when car door shut along a shoreline.

• 1969, April 7, 10:45 AM Fast moving single, then 2 humps, 20-25 feet overall, submerging and reappearing several times.

• 1969, July 26, 3:30 PM Single hump about 6 feet moving through water making a wake was spotted.

• 1969, August 1, 8:30 PM 3 humped object 20-30 feet long, moving slowly then submerged.

• 1969, August 6, 9:20 AM Two humped object 25-30 feet long, surfaced then submerged.

• 1971 - Father Gregory Brusey witnessed the creature for about 20 seconds at a distance of 300 yards, he saw a long neck followed by a hump swimming idly

• 1973, November 10, 11:45 AM A pole-like object emerged then submerged. Described as the Loch Ness Monster head.

• 1975 - A German nun and her friend Mrs. Robertson were alongside the loch when the witnessed the creature.

• 1977 - Anthony "Doc" Shiels photographs what he believes to be the Loch Ness Monster

• 1979, July 17, 10:30 AM Large black object speeding away from the shoreline was seen.

• 1995, August 12, 2:35 PM Serpent like creature, 40-50 feet long, dark gray in color, emerged and moved across loch.

• 03.07.1996 - Cigar shaped object seen at entrance to Caledonian Canal at Fort Augustus.

• 03.07.1996 - Large black 'lump' seen traveling across loch towards Dores from Abriachan.

• 03.14.1996 - Dark hump appeared twice in quick succession between Dores and Abriachan.

• 04.09.1996 - Shiny black object with 30 foot trail spotted just north of Fort Augustus.

• 04.09.1996 - Two humps rose from water and left trail behind - north of Fort Augustus.

• 04.10.1996 - Dark object with head and neck visible followed for 4 miles down loch.

• 05.13.1996 - Object and wake seen just off Urquhart Castle around midday.

• 05.14.1996 - Photo taken of 'something spooky' at the loch - photo now with NASA.

• 05.16.1996 - Frothy disturbance seen near Foyers in the evening by 16 people.

• 07.01.1996 - Two black lumps appeared from water between Dores and Abriachan.

• 7.21.1996 - Dark hump appeared off Invermoriston - seen by two people.

• 08.01.1996 - Black shiny hump seen off pier at Fort Augustus in late afternoon.

• 08.09.1996 - Photo taken of unidentified object in water opposite Urquhart bay.

• 08.11.1996 - Photo taken of 'solid black object' in water across from Abriachan.

• 08.18.1996 - Head and neck photographed off Invermoriston Camp Site.

• 08.22.1996 - Two humps and a tail spotted by fishermen near Invermoriston.

• 09.07.1996 - Several 'black and shiny' humps appeared in middle of loch near Abriachan.

• 10.24.1997 - A black hump appeared in the water near the jetty at Ft. Augustus. A man from Birmingham took two pics of the creature.

• 08.13.1997 - A large dark colored object appeared in the water near Abriachan and moved through the water at speed.

• 08.09.1997 - A camper staying at the Loch Ness Caravan and Camping Park at Invermoriston reported spotting Nessie at 3:00AM.

• 07.04.1997 - The "Royal Scot" reported a similar contact at a depth of 300 feet to those spotted on 2 July.

• 07.02.1997 - The "Royal Scot" from Fort Augustus had two sonar contacts at a depth of 400 feet in a trench just north of Fort Augustus.

• 06.21.1997 - A dark object was spotted moving swiftly across the loch about one mile south of Urquhart Castle at 0900 hours.

• 06.14.1997 - A pole like object appeared from the water near Dores on top of which was a small head that looked around before disappearing.

• 04.15.1997 - A woman visiting from the Isle of Skye reported to the Drumnadrochit hotel that she had seen something in the water near Foyers.

• 03.21.1997 - Richard White of Muir of Ord was traveling down the south side of the loch when he saw a number of black humps moving through the water about 200m from the shore.

• 03.21.1997 - A South African couple on holiday at Loch Ness reported to the Drumnadrochit Hotel that they had seen two humps near Aldourie Castle.

• 03.17.1997 - A local man from Glenurquhart reported seeing two humps in the water close to Abriachan.

• 02.16.1997 - A family reported an object traveling quickly through the water near Foyers.

• 12.31.1998 - A local couple saw a hump shape like an upturned boat for about 10-15 seconds during the afternoon of New Years Eve.

• 11.23.1998 - A local woman was a passenger in a car traveling north along the loch side when she saw a head and neck appear from the water at 1510 hours.

• 10.24.1998 - A Hertfordshire couple on holiday in the area saw a large creature moving under the waters of the loch at 1100 hours about half way up the loch.

• 10.20.1998 - A local van driver spotted something in the flat calm waters of the loch at 1100 hours near Cherry Island.

• 09.22.1998 - A monster hunter undertaking an early morning watch of the loch reported a strange fast moving wake near the Loch Ness Caravan and Camping Park at Invermoriston.

• 09.05.1998 - A Newcastle man and his family were aboard the boat "Nessie Hunter" when the man videoed an unidentified creature just south of Urquhart Castle.

• 07.16.1998 - An Invermoriston woman saw a wake and humps travel across the loch towards them at 2130 hours.

• 07.12.1998 - A man visiting from Fife saw a high speed v-shaped wake appear in the middle of the loch.

• 06.19.1998 - A group enjoying an evening cruise on the "Jacobite Queen" saw a large object in the water near Urquhart Castle.

• 06.17.1998 - Four men saw a large creature in the loch early in the morning near Inverfarigaig.

• 05.30.1998 - A Marlborough woman reported a black object about ten feet high in the water directly beside Urquhart Castle.

• 04.24.1998 - A couple on holiday saw a large creature in the water from the hills above Inverfarigaig.

• 09.14.1999 - It was around 11.30 a.m. when a couple touring the area spotted in Urquhart Bay what they first thought to be a car tire on the surface of the loch. It appeared to be about three feet long and one foot tall at its highest point. The object then moved against the wave’s formation in the area creating a wake as it did so. The couple saw some kind of water disturbance about three feet behind the black colored object, which appeared to rise slightly out of the water before submerging.

• 07.05.1999 - A couple on holiday from Huntly witnessed a creature in the middle of the loch at 9am. They watched as it moved up the loch for a period of around 20 minutes close to the Loch Ness Caravan and Camping Park. An experienced whale watcher, the man said that he had never before seen anything like it.

• 03.30.1999 - A group of 6-7 people saw a head and neck rise from the water 200 yards from the south shore of the loch. The watched as a black shape rose and then disappeared only to reappear a few minutes later. The was witnessed from a lay by opposite Urquhart castle. One witnessed described the head as being about 18 inches in height.

• 02.22.1999 - For the first time in since June 1963, Nessie was spotted out of the water on the shores of Loch Ness by an American visitor to the area. This unique sighting took place at 8.30 in the evening on the beach between Dores and Foyers where the creature, said to be between 10-15 meters in length with a long neck, scurried off into the water as the man approached.

• 09.04.2000 - Fort Augustus man saw two humps in the water close to Cherry Island at the South end of the loch.

• 08.03.2000 - Robert Pollock of Glasgow filmed a creature in the water for 3 minutes in Invermoriston Bay. It moved about and then disappeared below the surface.

• 08.03.2000 - 11.15.a.m. Two students touring the Highlands saw curious v-shaped wake moving through the water, off Boleskine and near Foyers.

• 07.17.2000 - Melissa Bavister and Chris Rivett, on holiday in the area, took a picture of a large double humped object in the middle of the loch.

• 06.22.2000 - 1.00 p.m. David Myers saw a 'triangular shaped mound' rise out of the water to a height of about two feet. Sighting occurred from loch side close to Clansman Hotel.

• 06.20.2000 - Gavin Joth, a Canadian watching the Loch Ness web cam, snapped a number of pictures of a head and neck type object crossing Urquhart Bay.

• 05.16.2000 - Jonathan Whitehead, an ornithologist. While on a walking trip around the loch, at about 10.30 a.m. he saw what appeared to be a head and neck sticking out of the water as he looked across Urquhart Bay.

• 05.15.2000 - A local man saw a head and neck just off Tor Point at the north end of the loch at around mid morning.

• 02.17.2000 - Allan White and family, from Australia were looking out over the loch from the A82 from Inverness. They saw a dark shape emerge on the water about half a mile away.

• 02.12.2000 - James Dalton. While visiting the loch on a day trip from Aberdeen saw an unusual movement of water, as something broke the surface near Horseshoe Scree.

• 01.08.2000 - John Catto, a former soldier saw a fifteen foot long object in the water as he made his way to Drumnadrochit. The object was about five feet tall.

• 01.03.2000 - Melvin Hughes, his wife and two children. At a distance of about half a mile saw from above Foyers from picnic area a black neck and head emerge from the water mid way across the loch and cause a water disturbance as it progressively moved in the water.

• 08.12.2001 - A man on holiday from Duns saw a black hump in the water near the Invermoriston Caravan and Camping Park. It appeared for 3-4 seconds and was also seen by his grandson.

• 08.05.2001 - Andrew Bain from Aberdeen was watching the loch from Fort Augustus at around 9pm. He saw a large black form rise from the water and remain visible for around 5 seconds. A smaller black hump then appeared close to the first before disappearing.

• 08.05.2001 - James Gray from Invermoriston took a series of five picture showing a head and neck coming out of the water near the Invermoriston bay. The creature was about 30m from his boat and quickly disappeared below the surface of the water.

• 01.10.2001 - Dougie Barbour from Glasgow took pictures of a wake moving against the current from a lay by near the Clansman Hotel during the mid afternoon.

• 08.10.2002 - A man traveling on the A82 towards Fort Augustus saw an unknown object cross the water at speed. It created a substantial wake and was above the water for about 15-20 seconds.

• 04.13.2002 - A local man and his daughter spotted something moving at the head of a wake across Urquhart Bay. They had a clear view on a calm surface for about 5-10 seconds of the object which was about 200 meters out from Urquhart Castle.

• 02.27.2002 - Two local residents of Dores at he north end of the loch saw something move quickly from Tor point to the Clansman Hotel They said that it created a wake and there was definite splashing from the head of whatever the creature was.

• 05.01.2003 - The captain of local cruise boat “The Royal Scot” reported seeing a fast moving v-shaped wake on the surface of the loch at 2.10pm. The water was very calm at the time and the wake was said to be about 1000 ft long with the creature at the head of it traveling at about 35mph.

• 04.23.2003 - Local coastguard skipper George Edwards saw a six foot long creature surface for about 2-3 minutes close to Urquhart Castle at around 1.00 in the afternoon. He said it was dark grey in color and had a rough texture to its skin – it came out of the water about 18 inches.

• 08.17.2004 - At 4pm, Tom Clegg of Worcestershire saw three dark humps 150m out from the shore between Invermoriston and Fort Augustus. He said it was definitely animate and there was no boating activity in the area at the time. The sighting lasted for 5 seconds.

• 04.11.2004 - Two holidaymakers were walking along Dores beach at around 10.00 am when they noticed an object in the water. It was there for around 5 minutes moving very slowly from left to right. The object was around 200 to 300 feet away and was no more that 2 or 3 feet out of the water.

• 02.05.2004 - Spotted on the Nessie on the Net web cam, a regular Nessie watcher snapped something come out of the water and disappear a few minutes later. This happened during the day close to Urquhart bay with all the normal explanations being discounted by experts.

• 10.15.2005 - Robbie Girvan, owner of the Loch Ness Caravan Park at Invermoriston, took five pictures of what he described as a 4 feet high head and neck at 6pm when he was walking his dogs by the loch shore. He said he saw a long neck come out of the water and had time to return to the house, get his camera, and return to take the pictures. Previously a non-believer, he said that the ‘dark green and silvery’ creature could only have been Nessie.

• 09.19.2005 - A retired Master Mariner was cruising just south of Urquhart Bay in a Caley Cruisers boat at a speed of 9 knots when they were overtaken by an unknown object which was between them and the south shore. Unlike anything any of the three people on the boat had seen before, the sighting lasted several minutes with whatever it was only disappearing as they moved the boat towards it. A regular boat user on the loch, the captain said that there was no rational explanation for what they had seen.

• 08.28.2005 - Kelly Yeats and Neil McKenzie from Bridge of Dee were staying at Foyers Bay House when they saw a ‘long necked, curved headed’ creature in the loch at 8.30 in the morning. The sighting lasted 10 minutes.

• 08.11.2005 - Mr. Bell and his family from Newcastle watched what they described as the head of a large animal move through the loch at 6pm in the evening. The family, who were on the veranda of a holiday lodge at Foyers at the time, said that the head was larger than that of a cow and was about 1/3 of the way across the loch. Regular visitors to the area, they were convinced it was not a boat wake or wave movement that they had seen.

The Stats – (Where applicable)

• Classification: Lake Monster
• Size: 20 to 40 Feet in Length
• Weight: Unknown
• Diet: Most likely local fish or possibly plant life.
• Location: Loch Ness, Scotland
• Movement: Swimming
• Environment: Deep Glacier Lake